Wessex Red Bus 505 Assignment

1. Scania OmniCity – The Scania OmniCity is an integrally constructed transverse-engined low floor city bus that was available from Scania on the European market between 1997 and 2012. The OmniCity was introduced in September 1996 as the first product based on the 4-series bus range, the first prototypes were built in the former DAB plant in Silkeborg, Denmark, and serial production continued there in 1997, joined by Scanias plant in Katrineholm, Sweden. From 1999 it was built at the plant in Słupsk. Production in Silkeborg ended in early 2000, and Katrineholm in 2004, since then all have been built in Poland. With a total of more than 2200 units, the last few OmniCities were built in 2012, the single-decker OmniCity was first introduced in 1996 in left-hand drive form and in 2002 in right-hand drive for the UK market. The earlier version of the single-decker OmniCity was known as the CN94UB, but the Euro IV version was known as the CN230UB or CN270UB, the 230 and 270 indicate the maximum power of the engine. The Scania OmniCity single-decker has a rounded dome with a single-curvature windscreen. Unlike the Scania L94UB and OmniLink, the OmniCity features a low floor without the need for steps or ramps to reach the rear seats. The OmniCity is popular in several European cities, notably with SL in Stockholm, Sweden, the first right-hand drive city bus entered service with Nottingham City Transport in January 2002, following conversion from left-hand drive. In February–March 2008 Metrobus, Crawley took delivery of the first 10. 7m OmniCities in the UK for the new Fastway route 100 and they featured part-leather seating and only one door – most Fastway buses have two – and entered service on 10 May 2008. In 2005, Scania announced the introduction of the OmniCity 2-axle double-decker bus in order to complement its OmniDekka double-decker bus sold in the UK and it has a full low floor and is a complete Scania product, unlike the OmniDekka which features a body by East Lancashire Coachbuilders. The early 2-axle double-decker OmniCity uses the N94UD chassis, the same as the OmniDekka, a demonstrator was delivered to Travel West Midlands and entered service in November 2005. The first order is five buses for Lothian Buses of Edinburgh, later Lothian Buses ordered a further 10 buses to replace the Tridents on the route, these buses entered service in late 2007. There are also 15 for Transdev London which entered service in late 2006, at first, it was in limited production, until the Euro IV version was launched. The reason for this is because the new Euro IV Scania engine is a five-cylinder 9-litre EGR engine as opposed to its Euro III predecessor, the chassis designation has also changed to N230UD or N270UD. Further orders were announced in late 2007, with many Go-Ahead companies buying them, such as Solent Blue Line, Southern Vectis, Metrobus also cancelled an order for two Scania/Darwen Olympus, for two OmniCitys, following the very long delays in production of the Olympus. In 2008, Transdev London ordered 22 more OmniCitys,9 for new route 482, national Express West Midlands took five more OmniCitys in early 2008. In May 2008, Reading Buses took delivery of 14 ethanol-fuelled OmniCitys These have now converted to diesel

2. Bristol – Bristol is a city and county in South West England with a population of 449,300 in 2016. The district has the 10th largest population in England, while the Bristol metropolitan area is the 12th largest in the United Kingdom, the city borders North Somerset and South Gloucestershire, with the cities of Bath and Gloucester to the south-east and north-east, respectively. Iron Age hill forts and Roman villas were built near the confluence of the rivers Frome and Avon, Bristol received a royal charter in 1155 and was historically divided between Gloucestershire and Somerset until 1373, when it became a county of itself. From the 13th to the 18th century, Bristol was among the top three English cities after London in tax receipts, Bristol was surpassed by the rapid rise of Manchester, Liverpool and Birmingham in the Industrial Revolution. Bristol was a place for early voyages of exploration to the New World. On a ship out of Bristol in 1497 John Cabot, a Venetian, in 1499 William Weston, a Bristol merchant, was the first Englishman to lead an exploration to North America. At the height of the Bristol slave trade, from 1700 to 1807, the Port of Bristol has since moved from Bristol Harbour in the city centre to the Severn Estuary at Avonmouth and Royal Portbury Dock. Bristols modern economy is built on the media, electronics and aerospace industries. The city has the largest circulating community currency in the U. K. - the Bristol pound, which is pegged to the Pound sterling. It is connected to London and other major UK cities by road, rail, sea and air by the M5 and M4, Bristol Temple Meads and Bristol Parkway mainline rail stations, and Bristol Airport. The Sunday Times named it as the best city in Britain in which to live in 2014 and 2017, the most ancient recorded name for Bristol is the archaic Welsh Caer Odor, which is consistent with modern understanding that early Bristol developed between the River Frome and Avon Gorge. It is most commonly stated that the Saxon name Bricstow was a calque of the existing Celtic name, with Bric a literal translation of Odor. Alternative etymologies are supported with the numerous variations in Medieval documents with Samuel Seyer enumerating 47 alternative forms. The Old English form Brycgstow is commonly used to derive the meaning place at the bridge, utilizing another form, Brastuile, Rev. Dr. Shaw derived the name from the Celtic words bras, or braos and tuile. The poet Thomas Chatterton popularised a derivation from Brictricstow linking the town to Brictric and it appears that the form Bricstow prevailed until 1204, and the Bristolian L is what eventually changed the name to Bristol. Iron Age hill forts near the city are at Leigh Woods and Clifton Down, on the side of the Avon Gorge, a Roman settlement, Abona, existed at what is now Sea Mills, another was at the present-day Inns Court. Isolated Roman villas and small forts and settlements were scattered throughout the area. Bristol was founded by 1000, by about 1020, it was a centre with a mint producing silver pennies bearing its name

3. Rotala – For the aquatic plant, see Rotala Rotala plc LSE, ROL is an Alternative Investment Market listed company, which owns a number of bus operators in England. In March 2005 Rotala was listed on the Alternative Investment Market, in August 2005 it agreed on terms to purchase Flights Hallmark. In October 2006 the business of Zaks Buses, Birmingham was purchased and rebranded Central Connect followed in December 2006 by Birmingham Motor Traction, in June 2007 Ludlows of Halesowen was purchased followed in July 2007 by North Birmingham Busways of Erdington. In March 2008, the Go West Midlands business was purchased, at this stage Rotala merged all its Birmingham based operations under the Diamond Bus brand. In January 2011, Preston Bus was purchased from Stagecoach, in January 2013, Rotala purchased depots in Kidderminster and Redditch from First Midland Red with 36 buses. These were integrated into the Diamond Bus operation, in March 2015, Rotala acquired South Lancs Travel from D&G Bus and Julian Peddle and rebranded it Diamond Bus North West. In June 2015, the 17 vehicle Wings Luxury Travel operation in London was purchased and integrated with Rotalas existing Heathrow operation, in December 2015, Rotala purchased the Heathrow-based operations of OFJ Connections. Rotalas first acquisition was Surrey Connect in 2005, when Centra decided to sell its Addlestone operation, the business was purchased by Flights Hallmark. Surrey Connect developed and continued to grow and won contracts for a number of Surrey County Council tendered routes, Rotala sold the company in June 2007 to Wiltax

4. Avonmouth – Avonmouth is a port and outer suburb of Bristol, England, located on the Severn Estuary, at the mouth of the River Avon. The council ward of Avonmouth also includes Shirehampton and the end of Lawrence Weston. Historically in Gloucestershire, Avonmouth is located at the mouth of the River Avon, on its north bank and it is the location of a large port, Avonmouth Docks. The Royal Portbury Dock, under the management, is on the other side of the Avon. Avonmouth is home to several large manufacturing plants and the gas-fired Seabank Power Station. There are several industrial and warehouse companies including Nisbets. There is also a significant residential area in Avonmouth between the zone and the M5 motorway. The M5 motorway runs through Avonmouth, and crosses the Avon by the Avonmouth Bridge, the M49 motorway runs between the M5 near Avonmouth and the M4 motorway at the Second Severn Crossing. The old Severn Bridge and the M48 motorway are linked to Avonmouth by the A403, the Welsh cities of Newport and Cardiff are both clearly visible from Avonmouths coastline. The Portway, part of the A4, connects Avonmouth to the centre of Bristol, Avonmouth is also served by a usually hourly train service to central Bristol from Avonmouth railway station on the Severn Beach Line. A new deepsea container terminal is planned in Avonmouth, a 10-hectare area of Avonmouth Sewage Treatment Works is managed as a nature reserve by Wessex Water. The man-made lagoons and a pool provide a feeding and resting area for birds including ducks such as pochard, tufted duck, teal. The rough grassland provides a refuge for voles, Northern crested newt and other small mammals, Avonmouth is part of the Bristol North West parliamentary constituency, which elects a member of parliament. As a ward of Bristol, Avonmouth sends two councillors to Bristol City Council, one of which is Doug Naysmith a former Labour MP for the area, and the other Siobhán Kennedy-Hall, apart from Avonmouth itself, the ward includes Shirehampton and part of Lawrence Weston. Shirehampton is a district of Bristol which originated as a separate village and it retains something of its village feel, having an identifiable High Street, and is still thought of as a village by many of its 6,867 inhabitants. Shirehampton railway station travel to the city centre. The western end of the Lawrence Weston area crosses the boundary into the Avonmouth ward, the entire area is separated from the rest of Bristol by a small amount of greenbelt

5. Bath, Somerset – Bath is a city in the ceremonial county of Somerset, England, known for its Roman-built baths. In 2011, the population was 88,859, Bath is in the valley of the River Avon,97 miles west of London and 11 miles south-east of Bristol. The city became a World Heritage Site in 1987, the city became a spa with the Latin name Aquæ Sulis c. AD60 when the Romans built baths and a temple in the valley of the River Avon, Bath Abbey was founded in the 7th century and became a religious centre, the building was rebuilt in the 12th and 16th centuries. In the 17th century, claims were made for the properties of water from the springs. Many of the streets and squares were laid out by John Wood, the Elder, and in the 18th century the city became fashionable, Jane Austen lived in Bath in the early 19th century. Further building was undertaken in the 19th century and following the Bath Blitz in World War II, the city has software, publishing and service-oriented industries. Theatres, museums, and other cultural and sporting venues have helped make it a centre for tourism with more than one million staying visitors and 3.8 million day visitors to the city each year. There are several museums including the Museum of Bath Architecture, Victoria Art Gallery, Museum of East Asian Art, the city has two universities, the University of Bath and Bath Spa University, with Bath College providing further education. Sporting clubs include Bath Rugby and Bath City F. C. while TeamBath is the name for all of the University of Bath sports teams. Bath became part of the county of Avon in 1974, and, the hills in the locality such as Bathampton Down saw human activity from the Mesolithic period. Several Bronze Age round barrows were opened by John Skinner in the 18th century, solsbury Hill overlooking the current city was an Iron Age hill fort, and the adjacent Bathampton Camp may also have been one. A long barrow site believed to be from the Beaker people was flattened to make way for RAF Charmy Down, messages to her scratched onto metal, known as curse tablets, have been recovered from the sacred spring by archaeologists. The tablets were written in Latin, and cursed people whom the writers felt had wronged them, for example, if a citizen had his clothes stolen at the baths, he might write a curse, naming the suspects, on a tablet to be read by the goddess. A temple was constructed in AD 60–70, and a complex was built up over the next 300 years. Engineers drove oak piles into the mud to provide a stable foundation, in the 2nd century, the spring was enclosed within a wooden barrel-vaulted structure that housed the caldarium, tepidarium, and frigidarium. The town was given defensive walls, probably in the 3rd century. After the failure of Roman authority in the first decade of the 5th century, in March 2012 a hoard of 30,000 silver Roman coins, one of the largest discovered in Britain, was unearthed in an archaeological dig

6. University of the West of England, Bristol – The University of the West of England is a public university located in and around the city of Bristol, United Kingdom. The university has a history dating back to the Merchant Venturers Navigation School which was founded in 1595 and its main campus is at Frenchay near Bristol, about 5 miles north of the city centre and close to the M32 motorway. UWE Bristol also has campuses at Glenside in north-east Bristol and Bower Ashton, with 27,715 students and 3,538 staff, UWE Bristol is the larger of the two universities in Bristol. This compares to the UK national averages of 94% and 71% respectively, the Chancellor of the university is Sir Ian Carruthers and Steven West is the Vice-Chancellor. The University of the West of England can trace its roots back to the foundation of the Merchant Venturers Navigation School, like the other former polytechnics, this gained university status and its present name as a result of the Further and Higher Education Act,1992. The Bower Ashton site was formed in 1969 as the West of England College of Art which was formerly the art school of the Royal West of England Academy in Queens Road, the St Matthias site was originally built in Victorian times and was a teacher training college. These campuses, together with campuses in Redland, Ashley Down, Unity Street, the Avon and Gloucestershire College of Health which is now the Glenside Campus and the Bath and Swindon College of Health Studies joined in January 1996. An £80 million student village located at the Frenchay campus, which includes a centre and rooms for 2000 students. The university is an academic sponsor of Bristol Technology and Engineering Academy. In 2012, major changes were introduced to the Frenchay campus at UWE, first, the Bristol Robotics Laboratory, the largest robotics laboratory in Europe, was opened and later on in the same year the UWE Bristol International College was opened to students. The International College provides international students with the academic, subject-based. In the spring of 2016, UWE Bristol launched a campaign which introduces a new look to the university. In autumn 2016 Future Space, an incubator for hi-tech companies, was opened adjacent to the Bristol Robotics Laboratory. It is supported by the UK government as the West of England University Enterprise Zone, UWEs largest and primary campus is Frenchay, situated 4 mi to the north of Bristol city centre with Filton to the West and Stoke Gifford to the North. As of September 2008 UWE have purchased the part of neighbour Hewlett Packards adjoining land. After consultation meetings it has stated that the campuses of Glenside. Bower Ashton will be retained for a period, but may ultimately move. It is the single largest development in the universitys history, the Frenchay campus will be home to the new Business and Law building, which will house the Bristol Business School and Bristol Law School after completion in 2017

7. University of Bath – The University of Bath is a public university located in Bath, Somerset, United Kingdom. It received its Royal Charter in 1966 and can trace its roots to a school established in Bristol in 1856. According to The Times Higher Education Student Experience Survey 2015 the University of Bath is the best university in the UK for student experience, in The Times and The Sunday Times Good University Guide 2014 the university was awarded the title of Best Campus University in Britain. Bath was awarded the title of ‘University of the Year 2011/12’, 87% was graded 4*/3*, defined as world-leading/internationally excellent. Until 30 October 2012, it was also a member of the 1994 Group, the University of Bath can trace its roots to a technical school established in Bristol in 1856, by the honourable Cameron Smart Meng, MIET. In 1885 the school part of the Society of Merchant Venturers and was renamed the Merchant Venturers Technical College. Meanwhile, in the city of Bath, a pharmaceutical school. This became part of the Technical College in 1929, in 1963, the Robbins Committee report paved the way for the college to assume university status as Bath University of Technology. Construction of the campus began in 1964, with the first building, now known as 4 South, completed in 1965. In November 1966, the first degree ceremony took place at the Assembly Rooms in Bath, over the subsequent decade, new buildings were added as the campus took shape. Such plans, however, did not come to fruition, the university logo features the so-called Gorgons head which is taken, via the universitys coat of arms, from a Roman sculpture found in the city. The universitys main campus is located on Claverton Down, a distance from the centre of Bath, the site is compact, it is possible to walk from one end to the other in fifteen minutes. The design involved the separation of vehicular and pedestrian traffic, with traffic on the ground floors and pedestrians on a raised central thoroughfare. Buildings would line the parade and student residences built on tower blocks rise from the central thoroughfare, at the centre of the campus is the Library and Learning Centre, a facility open round the clock offering computing services, information and research assistance as well as books and journals. Building names are based on their location and distance vis-à-vis the library, odd-numbered buildings are on the same side of the parade as the library, and even-numbered buildings are on the opposite side. 7 West is generally accessible only via 5 West or 9 West, buildings on the south of the campus,1 South to 4 South, are accessible via roads and pedestrian walkways by the university lake and gardens. In Bath, there is a particular contrast between the campus and the Georgian style architecture of the World Heritage City of Bath. The eastern part of the campus is dominated by the Sports Training Village, built in 1992, the northern perimeter of the university is bounded by student residences Westwood, Eastwood, Brendon Court, Polden Court, Solsbury Court, Marlborough Court and Woodland Court

8. Mercedes-Benz Vario – The Mercedes-Benz Vario is a full-size commercial heavy van manufactured by Mercedes-Benz between 1996 and 2013. In Philippines, Mercedes-Benz rebadged version, Morales Traveller is locally made by Morales Motors, the Traveller also offered as minibus or utility van. The Vario was launched in 1996 as a version of the Mercedes-Benz T2. The bodyshell remained relatively unchanged throughout its 17-year production life, the Vario proved a popular base chassis for minibuses and mini-coaches. When new regulations required disabled access, a model with a lift was made available. The Vario was fitted with several types of Mercedes-Benz engines, pre-2000 vehicles used a 5-cylinder OM602LA and 4-cylinder OM904LA, turbocharged and intercooled diesel engine. The most powerful was a 177 hp, 675Nm engine, two types of gearboxes were available, a 5-speed manual and on buses, an Allison AT545 4-speed automatic. Maximum payload was 4.4 tons with a volume of 17.4 cubic meters. A 4x4 model was also available, all models had a suspension on parabolic leaf springs, all ventilated disc brakes and power steering. On 27 September 2013 the last Vario rolled off the line in Ludwigsfelde. Between 1996 and 201390,743 units were manufactured, the Vario was succeeded in Daimler Trucks model range by heavier versions of the Mercedes-Benz Sprinter. Media related to Mercedes-Benz Vario at Wikimedia Commons Product Guide Mercedes-Benz

9. Bath bus station – Bath bus station serves as part of an integrated transport interchange for the city of Bath, Somerset, England. The Manvers Street bus station opened in 1958 and operated until 2009 when it was replaced by the new bus station in Dorchester Street as part of the Southgate regeneration programme, the old Bath Bus Station at Manvers Street opened in 1958 under the control of the Bristol Omnibus Company. The Southgate area of the city between Manvers Street to the east and St James’ Parade to the west was the area worst affected by the Baedeker Blitz of April 1942. The bus station was built as part of a project to replace this area of the city, the bus station was located next to the city’s red brick Victorian dairy, which showed lasting evidence of shell damage from the bombings. In this process, many of the older buildings and streets were destroyed to make way for not just the bus station. The demolition of this maze of buildings was known as the Rape of Bath and was finally halted in the early 1960s due to public outcry. The city has since designated a world heritage site and 95% of the buildings in the centre are protected by listed building status. The new development was seen as being a threat to the citys World Heritage Status, the bus station operated a range of services during its 49-year history – including local city buses, country buses, National Express coach services and Open top bus Tours. The Manvers Street Bus Station was scheduled to be demolished as part of the next Southgate regeneration programme for nearly 20 years, during this time, the building was owned by the local council and leased to First. Neither party was prepared to improve or repair the fabric of the building, however, the redevelopment was plagued with controversy and continual demands for reviews, so the project did not get under way until early 2007, with the appointment of new contractors. The bus station was demolished in July 2007. Operations for First Somerset & Avon moved to a temporary site constructed on the Avon Street Car Park on 16 June 2007 and this was provided by contractors Sir Robert McAlpine as part of a move to speed up completion of the entire Southgate project by one year. The new Bath Bus Station opened on Sunday 7 June 2009, at a cost of £14 million, as part of the £360 million SouthGate development

10. MCV Evolution – The MCV Evolution is a low floor and low entry single-decker bus bodywork built by Manufacturing Commercial Vehicles. It was unveiled in late 2004. It is the successor of the MCV Stirling.220,12.240,14.220 and 14.240 however there were plans to body on an even shorter MAN chassis, the 10.220, which can be built as short as 8. 5m long. From late 2005 it was offered on the Dennis Dart SLF since Alexander Dennis wanted to offer their chassis with other bodies, although Alexander Dennis has replaced the Dart with the new Enviro200 Dart it is still offered with the MCV bodywork. In October 2009, MCV and Arriva Bus and Coach unveiled the VDL SB180/MCV Evolution in Coach, the MCV Evolution was also offered on larger full-size single-decker buses, such as the Volvo B7RLE, MAN A22 and Mercedes-Benz OC500LE. It remains a unique one-off bus as no orders were placed. List of buses Media related to MCV Evolution at Wikimedia Commons

11. Dennis Dart – The Dennis Dart is a rear-engined single-decker bus chassis that was manufactured by Dennis in Guildford, England. More than 11,000 were produced during 18 years of production, most were purchased by United Kingdom operators, although examples were sold to the North America, Australia, Hong Kong and Singapore. The Dennis Dart was conceived when Hestair Group decided to produce a bus between a minibus and a full-sized single-decker and it was launched in 1988 and was originally offered with the Duple Dartline bodywork. It was 2. 3m wide and was available in the length of 9m. It was powered by a Cummins 6BT engine and coupled to the Allison AT545 gearbox and this model was sold to London Buses and to some operators outside London. Soon after it was launched, Duple was sold to Plaxton, Plaxton decided not to acquire the design rights of the Duple Dartline and it was sold to Carlyle Works, who continued producing the bodywork from 1991. Production passed to Marshall of Cambridge in 1992 who bodied five Darts to this design, in 1993, Marshall updated the design to the C36 and later, the C37. In 1990, Wadham Stringer became the builder to body the Dart with a body called the Portsdown. In the same year, Wright bodied the Dart with the Handybus, in early 1991, Plaxton launched the Pointer. Later in 1991, East Lancs bodied the Dart with its EL2000, in the latter half of 1991, Alexander launched the Dash. Another contender entering the market at the time was the Northern Counties Paladin. Initially, it was built with a design of a barrel shaped windscreen with quarterlights and it was phased out when Plaxton bought Northern Counties in 1995. In 1995, Dennis launched a version of the Dart, the Dennis Dart SLF. It was 2. 4m wide and initially offered in lengths of 9. 2m, 10m and 10. 6m, the driveline of the step-entrance Dart was retained, although some early examples were fitted with Eaton manual transmission. It was initially offered with the low floor version of the Pointer and it was also offered with a wide variety of bodies, namely the East Lancs Spryte, UVG Urbanstar, the Wright Crusader, Alexander ALX200, Marshall Capital, Caetano Nimbus and MCV Evolution. Some Dart SLFs with Alexander ALX200 bodies were delivered to the North America, in 1997, the Dart SPD was launched with the length of 11. 3m. It has a powerful engine and a more heavy duty Allison World Series B300R gearbox. Originally offered only with Plaxton Pointer 2 bodywork this larger bus was later offered with other such as East Lancs, the Alexander ALX200

12. Plaxton Pointer – The Plaxton Pointer is a single-decker bus body manufactured during the 1990s by Plaxton and latterly built by Alexander Dennis. With the launch of the Dennis Dart in 1989, Plaxtons subsidiary Reeve Burgess made the Pointer body on the short 8.5 m chassis. Launched in 1991, at 2.3 m wide, this proved popular with many operators, the modular nature of both chassis and body meant for various permutations in length, with 8.5 m,9.0 m and 9.8 m variants being manufactured. The Pointer became the most successful midibus body, the Pointer was also available with Volvo B6 chassis. This redesigned Pointer bodywork was built on the Volvo B6LE, one for the UK. The low floor Plaxton Pointer 1 and the Plaxton Pointer 2 have a rounded dome with a double-curvature windscreen. Not long after, the received an all-new lower front end design, and alterations to the rest of the body - the Pointer 2 was born. This was also available in a range of lengths to suit individual needs -9.3 m,10.1 m,10.7 m,11.3 m Super Pointer Dart, and after 3 years of production, the 8.8 m Mini Pointer Dart. The 11.3 m Super Pointer Dart is considered as a full-sized single-decker bus, in 1998, the Mayflower Group, owner of Alexander Coachbuilders, took over Dennis. The future of the Pointer at that time appeared uncertain as it was thought the Dart may be solely bodied by Alexander. As a result, Plaxton built two Pointer bodies on the Volvo B6BLE chassis known as Bus 2000, but the project was scrapped when Mayflower also purchased Plaxton, forming TransBus International. Certain design features of the scrapped Bus 2000 project have since used on other designs. With the collapse of TransBus in 2004 and subsequent restructuring by the administrators, Plaxton, as Pointer production had been transferred to the former Alexander plant at Falkirk, it became an Alexander Dennis product. Plaxton, once again an independent company, signalled its return to the bus market by developing the Centro on VDL, in August 2006 Alexander Dennis launched the Enviro200 Dart as a replacement for the Pointer Dart. Alexander Dennis Henlys Group PLC List of buses Plaxton Media related to Plaxton Pointer at Wikimedia Commons Alexander Dennis Pointer product website - Web archive

13. Plaxton Centro – The Plaxton Centro is a low floor single-decker bus body designed by Bluebird Vehicles and manufactured by Plaxton. It was launched on the VDL SB120 in February 2006, the Centro was also made available on the VDL SB200 chassis in 2006. In 2007 the Centro was made available on the MAN12.240, the first operator of the Volvo chassied example was Rotala subsidiary Wessex Bus for the Bristol Park & Ride service East Yorkshire Motor Services had 6 Centro bodied Volvo B7RLEs delivered in 2008. In 2010, Blackpool Transport took delivery of Volvo examples, Plaxton bodied the MAN14.220 chassis in 2008 before this was replaced by the MAN14.240 in 2009. Users of the Centro include TM Travel, Arriva, Centrebus, GHA Coaches, Wessex Bus, as of 2014, the Centro is no longer available from Plaxton as the parent company Alexander Dennis phased it out in favour of its own Enviro300. List of buses Media related to Plaxton Centro at Wikimedia Commons Plaxton Centro Flickr gallery

14. Volvo B7RLE – Volvo B7RLE is a low-entry single-decker bus chassis manufactured by Volvo Buses since 2001. In markets where the Euro VI emission requirements are enforced, it was replaced by the B8RLE in 2013 in some markets, B7RLE is similar to its predecessor, the B10BLE. In essence the B7RLE is the front section of the B7L chassis mated with the section of the B7R chassis. Originally, the B7RLE featured the D7C 6-cylinder,7. 3-litre diesel engine with a turbocharger and intercooler, producing 250 or 275 bhp and this was replaced by the 7. 1-litre Volvo D7E engine producing 290 bhp, to Euro IV/Euro V/Euro III incentive emission standards. Unlike the B7L, the B7RLEs engine is mounted at the center of the rear overhang as opposed to the nearside, the Volvo B7RLE is also equipped with disc brakes and ABS. B7RLE was launched in mainland Europe and Australia in 2001, and then in the United Kingdom in 2003 to supplement the B7L single-decker, the B7RLE appealed more to UK operators, with whom the B7L was unpopular and has sold well compared to its predecessor. Initially the B7RLE was only available in the UK with Wright Eclipse Urban bodywork, since 2004 it has also been used as a low-floor single-decker coach, with a longer front overhang and Wright Eclipse Commuter body. From late 2006 the B7RLE in the UK is available with Plaxton Centro bodywork followed by Alexander Dennis Enviro300 and Optare Esteem bodywork in 2008. The B7RLE can also be found in other countries, including most European countries, China, Hong Kong, Malaysia, India, Indonesia, Singapore, Greece. However, many of these buses use local bodywork, the bus uses Bustech, Custom Coach and Volgren bodywork, designed and built in Australia. In June 2011 Mercedes-Benz lost the contract with Transperth and Volvo won, all of the Volvos in the Transperth fleet have Volgren bodywork. The earlier B7RLEs featured the Volgren CR228L body, the models feature the Volgren Optimus body. All Transperth Volvo B7RLEs have McConnell urban seats and are air-conditioned by the Thermo King Citi-RT, B7RLE, also known as SUNWIN SWB6120V4LE/SWB6120V6LE, manufactured by Shanghai Sunwin Bus, is very common on Shanghai streets. In 2003, Huangbus purchased five B7RLEs with Jit Luen JL-08 bodies and D7E-290 7142cc engines. All 70 AVCs has put in service in 2012, and these buses are deployed on short distance routes such as 7M, 16M, 34M,270,273 or routes with very low ridership such as 72A. In India, B7RLEs were introduced into service in Bangalore in 2006 by BMTC and they were later inducted into the fleets of NMMT, and BEST for use in Mumbai and Navi Mumbai. Custom made B7RLE chassis are assembled at Volvos factory outside Bangalore, the bodywork adopted by Malaysias B7RLE, operated by Kuala Lumpur-based bus operator RapidKL as a wheelchair accessible bus, features a more radical design by Gemilang Coachworks. Some Volvo B7RLEs also operate in Surabaya, Indonesia and it is the first wheelchair-accessible bus in Indonesia fitted with a Euro IV engine

15. South Gloucestershire Bus & Coach – South Gloucestershire can trace its history back to 1982 when Roger Durbin set up operations as Durbin’s Coaches. After steadily expanding over the years, in 1994 Durbins Coaches was sold to Badgerline and incorporated into their Bristol Omnibus Company subsidiary, a non-compete clause in the contract of sale prevented Roger Durbin from operating bus servicves in the Bristol area for three years. Whilst Roger Durbin left the company, Tony Lavoie, the marketing manager stayed with the company, after a few months Lavoie left to start up his own bus company, Leisure Travel. By 1997, with a fleet of 24 vehicles, Roger Durbin joined as a partner in the business, also during 1998 the pair purchased a local taxi firm which they renamed South Gloucestershire Taxi Company with a similar fleet name as the bus business. Durbin took on the bus side of the business while Lavoie looked after the running of the taxi company. During 1999 the original Durbin’s Coaches business was re acquired from First Bristol, also during 2003 the taxi operation was separated from the bus operation, which saw Lavoie leave the business. The fleet mainly consisted of second hand vehicles such as Leyland Lynx and Leyland Titans, there were two Dennis Dart SLFs that were new to Durbin in 2003 for Orange and UWE work. In 2007 South Gloucestershire was named the most un-environmentally-friendly bus operator in the country and it was also named the worst for customer service, although this hasnt been formally recognised since, the level of service has remained poor. In June 2007 the bus operations of the company were sold to Rotala Group subsidiary Flights Hallmark, following the sale South Gloucestershire were left with school services, the 462 commuter service and the Axa 101 service, that both interworked with school services. Since then further corporate staff services have been up in and around Bristol as well as work on behalf of UWE, including shuttle bus, the fleet has been continually updated since the sale in 2007 with more modern coaches and further second hand buses. The light blue livery is no longer in use as all vehicles have either sold or painted into the new yellow StudentLink livery. During December 2007 South Gloucestershire operated the seasonal route 319 from Bristol to Birmingham, the service was introduced to meet demand over the festive period until January 2008. From March 2008 several more additional weekend journeys were added to the 040, in September 2008 South Gloucestershire began operating their first full-time National Express contract on route 200 between Bristol and Gatwick Airport. For this purpose a fleet of 6 state of the art tri-axle Scania K340EB6/Caetano Levantes were purchased, the first new coaches to be operated. From January 2010 South Gloucestershire began to operate the 040 on a full-time basis after taking over the route from First Coaches, the majority of journeys on the route were worked by the Levantes purchased for the 200, as well as three further examples acquired from National Express Operation. From 2013 the tri-axle coaches began to lose National Express branding so the use of coaches on the 040 is more common. Further expansion came during August when the took over operation of the 401/2, Wells/Frome to London and 403, Bath to London. This saw the use of coaches on the 200 service for a few weeks until all of the new coaches hadarrived

16. Hallmark Coach – Hallmark is a trading name of Hallmark Connections Limited. Hallmark is a coach and corporate cars business, which is part of the Rotala group. It is based in the West Midlands and also has a depot at Heathrow Airport, Flights Hallmark was established, in 1913 in its current home of Birmingham. Over the years it has developed in the industry. The company was purchased by Rotala in August 2005, as part of Rotala, Flights has done a lot on behalf of the parent company. Flights Hallmark bought the Surrey Connect business, which part of Rotala shortly afterwards. The Surrey Connect operation was sold to Wiltax in June 2007, the Flights Hallmarks Avonmouth and Keynsham depots are also home to its Wessex Bus services. The company currently runs buses and coaches from a number of depots throughout England and these services include shuttle bus services, airline or crew transfers, private hires, tours, and VIP services such as providing coaches for football teams. Clients include, Aston Villa, Burton Albion, Ipswich, Nottingham Forest, Walsall, the chauffeur driven cars arm of the business is named Flights Corporate Transfers. This is usually airport transfer work, in 2011 Flights Hallmark started work as a National Express contractor. Media related to Hallmark Coach at Wikimedia Commons Hallmark website Showbus gallery

17. Bristol City Council – Bristol City Council is the local authority of Bristol, England. The council is an authority, and is unusual in the United Kingdom in that its executive function is controlled by a directly elected mayor of Bristol. Bristol has 35 wards, electing a total of 70 councillors, the council was formed by the Local Government Act 1972. It was first elected in 1973, a year before coming into its powers. It was envisaged through the Local Government Act 1972 that Bristol as a district council would share power with the Avon County Council. This arrangement lasted until 1996 when Avon County Council was abolished, the mayor of Bristol following the 2016 mayoral election is Marvin Rees for the Labour Party. Rees had previously ran in the first Bristol mayoral election, coming second place to the independent George Ferguson, Bristol City Council elections History of Bristol City Council Politics of Bristol

18. South Gloucestershire Council

Tue Mar 13 12:55:10 +0000 2018
@wessexbus via twitter

@clcpang I have nothing to report so all should be ok.

Tue Mar 13 12:16:23 +0000 2018
@wessexbus via twitter

@clcpang Hi Chris,I apologise for the long delay in responding back to yourself. The service broke down at Aztec W… https://t.co/pffRuztc9D

Sat Mar 03 15:43:15 +0000 2018
@wessexbus via twitter

With all Bristol services operating and Bath to resume as normal Monday we are signing off, you can still reach us… https://t.co/HBTcKHJeCN

Sat Mar 03 13:50:02 +0000 2018
@wessexbus via twitter

@Cragoolia Hi Craig where are you waiting?

Sat Mar 03 13:49:40 +0000 2018
@wessexbus via twitter

@dilly_dallysean Hi. The 622 is not a Wessex service

Sat Mar 03 13:12:23 +0000 2018
@wessexbus via twitter

@pukiing Hello all services are operating however maybe delayed due to road conditions.

Sat Mar 03 11:04:37 +0000 2018
@wessexbus via twitter

Service Update: Services 10/625/508 will all operate as normal from 1100.

Sat Mar 03 09:57:22 +0000 2018
@wessexbus via twitter

Service Update: At present the only services operating are the 11/11A and 51 service all other services are suspend… https://t.co/tgzLQSTAyp

Sat Mar 03 09:55:57 +0000 2018
@wessexbus via twitter

@TheJack_Brace Hi you will need to contact CT Plus as this is operated by them since September.

Sat Mar 03 09:49:09 +0000 2018
@wessexbus via twitter

Service Update: Having assessed the situation on our Bath routes we regret to inform 12, 20A & 20C have been suspended.

Sat Mar 03 09:29:32 +0000 2018
@wessexbus via twitter

Further updates to follow

Sat Mar 03 09:29:04 +0000 2018
@wessexbus via twitter

Service Update: We are in the process of dispatching buses for the service 51 and 11/11a on normal service.

Sat Mar 03 07:47:18 +0000 2018
@wessexbus via twitter

Service Update: We are currently undertaking route assessments until this is completed all services pre 1000 are su… https://t.co/4uS1YX4ev2

Fri Mar 02 20:09:45 +0000 2018
@wessexbus via twitter

@BathEcho @FirstBSA Details just posted on our Twitter page.

Fri Mar 02 20:06:46 +0000 2018
@wessexbus via twitter

Service Update: Due to weather conditions changing overnight we are unable to predict how the road network will be… https://t.co/D4Q4H1sTjk

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